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Java Full Form: Types, Features, Application

The name JAVA is a computer-based programming language that functions to develop computer-based applications. It does not have a specific full form or neither an abbreviation. Hence, the ‘Just Another Virtual Accelerator’ is a fictionalized complete version of JAVA and the name is put forward by the general public.

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Java Origin and Evolution

Java’s journey began in the early 1990s when a team of developers at Sun Microsystems, led by James Gosling, set out to create a programming language that could overcome the limitations of existing languages. The result was Java, introduced in 1995. The language was designed with the principle of “write once, run anywhere” (WORA) in mind, aiming to be platform-independent and capable of running on any system with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This concept revolutionized the way software was developed and deployed.

Application of Java

According to Sun, 3 billion devices run Java. There are many devices where Java is currently used. Some of them are as follows:

  1. Desktop Applications such as Acrobat Reader, media player, antivirus, etc.
  2. Web Applications such as irctc.co.in, javatpoint.com, etc.
  3. Enterprise Applications such as banking applications.
  4. Mobile
  5. Embedded System
  6. Smart Card
  7. Robotics
  8. Games, etc.

Types of Java Applications

1. Standalone Application

Standalone applications are also known as desktop applications or window-based applications. These are traditional software that we need to install on every machine. Examples of standalone applications are Media players, antivirus, etc. AWT and Swing are used in Java for creating standalone applications.

2.  Web Application

An application that runs on the server side and creates a dynamic page is called a web application. Currently, ServletJSPStrutsSpringHibernateJSF, etc. technologies are used for creating web applications in Java.

3. Enterprise Application

An application that is distributed in nature, such as banking applications, etc. is called an enterprise application. It has advantages like high-level security, load balancing, and clustering. In Java, ERJ is used for creating enterprise applications.

4.  Mobile Application

An application that is created for mobile devices is called a mobile application. Currently, Android and Java ME are used for creating mobile applications.

Java Terminology

1. Java Virtual Machine(JVM):  This is generally referred to as JVM. There are three execution phases of a program. They are written, compile and run the program.

    • Writing a program is done by a Java programmer like you and me.
    • The compilation is done by the JAVAC compiler which is a primary Java compiler included in the Java development kit (JDK). It takes the Java program as input and generates bytecode as output.
    • In the Running phase of a program, JVM executes the bytecode generated by the compiler.

2. Bytecode in the Development Process:  As discussed, the Javac compiler of JDK compiles the java source code into bytecode so that it can be executed by JVM. It is saved as a .class file by the compiler. To view the bytecode, a disassembler like javac can be used.

3. Java Development Kit(JDK): While we were using the term JDK we learned about bytecode and JVM. So, as the name suggests, it is a complete Java development kit that includes everything including compiler, Java Runtime Environment (JRE), Java debuggers, Java docs, etc. For the program to execute in Java, we need to install JDK on our computer in order to create, compile and run the Java program.

4. Java Runtime Environment (JRE): JDK includes JRE. JRE installation on our computers allows the Java program to run, however, we cannot compile it. JRE includes a browser, JVM, applet support, and plugins. For running the Java program, a computer needs JRE.

5. Garbage Collector: In Java, programmers can’t delete the objects. To delete or recollect that memory JVM has a program called Garbage Collector. Garbage Collectors can recollect the objects that are not referenced. So Java makes the life of a programmer easy by handling memory management. However, programmers should be careful about their code whether they are using objects that have been used for a long time. Because Garbage cannot recover the memory of objects being referenced.

6. ClassPath: The classPath is the file path where the Java runtime and Java compiler look for .class files to load. By default, JDK provides many libraries. If you want to include external libraries they should be added to the classpath.

Primary/Main Features of Java

1. Platform Independent: The compiler converts source code to bytecode and then the JVM executes the bytecode generated by the compiler. This bytecode can run on any platform be it Windows, Linux, or macOS which means if we compile a program on Windows, then we can run it on Linux and vice versa. Each operating system has a different JVM, but the output produced by all the OS is the same after the execution of the bytecode. That is why we call Java a platform-independent language.

2. Object-Oriented Programming Language: Organizing the program in terms of a collection of objects is a way of object-oriented programming, each of which represents an instance of the class.

The four main concepts of Object-Oriented programming are:

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

3. Simple:  Java is one of the simple languages as it does not have complex features like pointers, operator overloading, multiple inheritances, and Explicit memory allocation. 

4. Robust:  Java language is robust which means reliable. It is developed in such a way that it puts a lot of effort into checking errors as early as possible, which is why the Java compiler is able to detect even those errors that are not easy to detect by another programming language. The main features of Java that make it robust are garbage collection, Exception Handling, memory allocation and more…

The benefits of learning to code with Java

Learning to code with Java can make you a more competitive candidate for programming roles. A few more benefits of learning to code with Java include:

  • Java is one of the simplest programming languages to learn and typically can be mastered in a shorter period of time than other languages.
  • There are countless online resources to learn Java, free and paid.
  • Everything from application servers to enterprise applications can be built with Java, making it a high-demand skill in the world of programming and software development.
  • Employment of software developers is projected to grow by 22 per cent between 2020 and 2030, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  • Java’s popularity continues to grow among leading brands.


In this journey through the world of Java, we’ve explored the language’s fundamental concepts, advanced features, and significance in the ever-evolving realm of software development. Java has proven itself to be more than just a programming language; it’s a powerful tool with a rich history and a bright future.

FAQs About Java

Learning Java opens doors to a wide range of career opportunities in software development. It’s used in web development, mobile app development (Android), server-side applications, big data processing, and more.

You can set up a Java development environment by installing the Java Development Kit (JDK) and an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, or NetBeans.

Java has several primitive data types, including int, double, boolean, char, byte, short, long, and float.

An object is an instance of a class in Java. It represents a real-world entity and can hold data (attributes) and perform actions (methods).

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