- States of matter, the structure of atoms, versatile nature of carbon.
- Acids, bases, salts, corrosion in metals, the action of soaps.
- Evolution, marine and terrestrial life on Earth. The human body and life processes, nutrition, disease – causes and prevention, infectious diseases, and lifestyle diseases are all topics covered in this course.
- Initiatives in public health, maternal and child health, immunisation and vaccination, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, polio, and other diseases
- The Archimedes principle, force-laws of motion, and gravitation
- Energy – kinetic & potential. Light – reflection & refraction – concepts and applications. Sound – propagation & reflection- concepts and applications.
- Electric current – concepts and applications.
- Computers and telecommunication – concepts and applications.
- Composition and structure of the atmosphere.
- Solar system – heat balance & temperature.
- Atmospheric circulation & weather system, water cycle.
- Climate change – fossil fuels, greenhouse gases, renewable energy, clean development mechanism, carbon credits.
- Water – oceans, rivers, glaciers, lakes, groundwater, etc.
- Pollution and toxicity etc.
|Political theory & international order
- Basic features, provisions, schedules of the Indian Constitution, key amendments.
- Panchayati Raj. Elections – People’s Representation Act, electoral reforms. Rise of regionalism and coalition politics.
- Armed challenges to the Indian state since independence.
|History of India
- The Indus valley civilization.
- The Aryan and the Vedic age.
- Jainism and Buddhism.
- The Maurya Gupta periods.
- The advent of Islam and the Sultanate period (political, social & cultural).
- The Bhakti Movement.
- The Mughals (political, social & cultural till Aurangzeb).
- The coming of the European Powers and the advent of British rule.
- The Mutiny of 1857.
- The British rule and the Indian National Movement (1857-1947)
- The Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution in Europe.
- The American Revolution of 1776.
- The French Revolution of 1789.
- The Russian Revolution of 1917.
- World Wars I & II.
- Indian economic development (1950-1991) – key economic policies, public sector dominance, bank nationalization, etc.
- Five-year plans – key goals and main achievements.
- Liberalization, privatization, and globalization era since 1991 – key policies, decisions, and results.
- Performance of Indian economy since 1991 – Growth, fiscal & revenue deficits, trade, commerce & balance of payments, inflation, growth of service sector.
- Key challenges and responses – agriculture and food security, industrialization, poverty alleviation & employment, rural & urban infrastructure, social sector – health, education, etc.
- Population – distribution, density, growth, and comparison.
- Migration – types, causes, and consequences.
- Human development.
- Human settlements.
- Land resources and agriculture.
- Water resources.
- Mineral and energy resources.
- Manufacturing industries.
- Planning and sustainable development in India.
- Transport and communication.
- International trade.
- A geographical perspective on selected issues and problems.
- National and international importance
- Geography: Geographical and agro-climatic regions, rivers, water resources, sharing of waters, demographics, human development indices
- People, Society and Culture: Major personalities in the history of Punjab, religious movements, major religions & spiritual personalities, Punjabi literature, folklore, performing arts, fine arts and crafts
- History: Sufis, saints and gurus, Lodhis and Mughals, Sikh rulers, the British period, nationalist movement in Punjab, Punjab in independent India.
- Economy: Agriculture, animal husbandry, industrial & service sectors, major occupations, development & economic growth, public finance (including central-state fiscal issues), public sector institutions, cooperatives, etc.