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What is BoQ full form: Introduction, Information, BoQ Structure

A Bill of Quantity (BOQ) is a document that lists all the materials, labor, and equipment required for a construction project, along with their estimated costs. It is used as a basis for procurement and pricing, as well as for tracking and monitoring the project’s progress and costs.

BOQs are typically prepared by quantity surveyors or cost consultants, but they can also be prepared by contractors or other construction professionals. The BOQ is typically prepared after the project’s design has been completed and the specifications have been finalized.


What Does Boq Mean

The Bill of Quantities (BoQ) is a comprehensive document used in the construction industry to outline and quantify the materials, labor, and other costs required to complete a construction project. It serves as a crucial tool for accurately estimating the total project cost and aids in tendering, budgeting, and project management.

Purpose and Importance

The primary purpose of a Bill of Quantities is to provide a detailed breakdown of all the components involved in a construction project. It includes precise quantities and descriptions of the work to be performed, materials to be used, and associated costs. This detailed breakdown allows for accurate cost estimation, budgeting, and financial planning.

The key importance of a Bill of Quantities includes:

  1. Cost Estimation: It helps in calculating the estimated cost of the project by itemizing all materials, labor, and overheads.
  2. Tendering: It enables contractors to submit accurate and competitive tenders based on a clear understanding of project requirements and costs.
  3. Budget Control: It assists in managing and controlling costs throughout the project, ensuring financial alignment with the original estimates.
  4. Contract Management: It provides a basis for contract negotiations, variations, and payments by establishing clear and agreed-upon rates for each item.

Project Information

General Conditions of Bill of Quantity
1. Scope of Work
Detailed description of work to be done, including materials, quantities, and specifications.
2. Pricing Information
Clear pricing for each item or activity, indicating rates, unit costs, and overall totals.
3. Measurement Units
Standard units of measurement used to quantify the work, such as square meters, cubic meters, or units.
4. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Organized structure outlining the various components or phases of the project for accurate pricing and tracking.
5. Conditions of Contract
Legal and contractual terms and conditions that govern the relationship between parties involved in the project.
6. Payment Terms
Stipulated terms for payment, including billing frequency, modes of payment, and payment milestones.
7. Variations and Adjustments
Procedures and conditions for handling changes in the scope of work, quantities, or specifications during the project.
8. Provisional Sums
Amounts included for work that cannot be precisely defined at the time of tender, to be determined during the project.
9. Contingency and Escalation
Allowances for unforeseen events or cost escalations due to changes in market conditions or other factors.
10. Quality Assurance and Compliance
Standards and specifications to ensure the quality of work, materials, and compliance with relevant regulations.
11. Health, Safety, and Environmental Requirements
Guidelines and requirements to ensure a safe and environmentally friendly work environment.
12. Bonds and Insurances
Types and amounts of bonds and insurances required to secure performance, payment, or liability.
13. Project Schedule
Timeframe for completing the project, including milestones, deadlines, and delivery schedules.
14. Claims and Disputes
Procedures for handling claims, disputes, or disagreements that may arise during the project.

Preliminary Items

Preliminary Items

  1. Site Preparation and Clearance
    • Description: Clearing and organizing the construction site to make it ready for the construction work.
    • Activities: Removing debris, vegetation, or any hindrances, leveling the ground, and setting up site boundaries.
  2. Temporary Works
    • Description: Erecting temporary structures needed for construction purposes.
    • Activities: Setting up temporary fencing, construction offices, storage facilities, and on-site sanitation.
  3. Safety and Environmental Requirements
    • Description: Implementing safety measures and adhering to environmental regulations.
    • Activities: Conducting safety briefings, installing safety signage, and implementing waste disposal procedures.

Demolition and Site Preparation

Item No.Description of WorkUnitQuantityUnit Rate ($)Total Cost ($)
1Site Survey and AssessmentLump Sum115001500
2Demolition of Existing StructuresSQM50052500
3Removal of Debris and WasteTonne101001000
4Grading and Leveling of SiteSQM80021600
5Excavation for Foundations and UtilitiesCubic Mtr200102000
6Soil Compaction and PreparationSQM60031800
7Erosion Control MeasuresLump Sum1500500
8Filling and Compacting with GravelCubic Mtr30051500
9Clearing Vegetation and TreesAcre210002000
10Temporary Fencing and Site SecurityLump Sum1800800
 Total Demolition and Site Preparation Cost   11,700

Civil and Structural Works

Civil and Structural Works

  1. Concrete Works
    • Description: Creating structures using a mixture of cement, water, and aggregates (such as sand and gravel) that hardens over time.
    • Activities: Pouring concrete for foundations, columns, beams, and other structural elements.
  2. Masonry Works
    • Description: Constructing with individual units like bricks, concrete blocks, or stones, using mortar to bind them together.
    • Activities: Building walls, partitions, and facades using bricks, blocks, or stones as per design.
  3. Steel Works
    • Description: Fabricating and installing steel components for structural support and reinforcement.
    • Activities: Cutting, shaping, and welding steel to form structural frames, beams, and other support elements.
  4. Formwork and Shuttering
    • Description: Creating temporary molds or frameworks to hold concrete in place until it sets.
    • Activities: Constructing molds using wood, steel, or other materials to shape poured concrete.
  5. Reinforcement Works
    • Description: Adding reinforcing bars (rebar) within concrete to enhance its strength and durability.
    • Activities: Placing and securing rebar within concrete forms before pouring.
  6. Structural Steel Erection
    • Description: Assembling and installing steel frames and structures to provide the main structural support.
    • Activities: Lifting, positioning, and bolting together steel beams and components to create the structural framework.

Mechanical and Electrical Works

Mechanical Works:

Item No. Description of Work Unit Quantity Unit Rate ($) Total Cost ($)
1 Installation of HVAC System Lump Sum 1 8000 8000
2 Plumbing and Drainage System Installation Lump Sum 1 5000 5000
3 Installation of Fire Suppression System Lump Sum 1 3000 3000
4 Ventilation System Installation Lump Sum 1 6000 6000
5 Elevator and Lift Installation Lump Sum 1 7000 7000
6 Installation of Mechanical Fixtures Lump Sum 1 2000 2000
Total Mechanical Works Cost 31000

Electrical Works:

Item No.Description of WorkUnitQuantityUnit Rate ($)Total Cost ($)
1Electrical Wiring and InstallationLump Sum160006000
2Lighting System InstallationLump Sum140004000
3Installation of Electrical Panels and BoardsLump Sum130003000
4Power Distribution System InstallationLump Sum150005000
5Fire Alarm and Security System InstallationLump Sum135003500
6Installation of Electrical FixturesLump Sum115001500
 Total Electrical Works Cost   23000

Advantages of Bill of Quantity

  • It provides Details of Work: In the Bill of Quantity, the full attribute of an item of work is given with their quantity which gives the person who is bidding an idea about the project work.
  • Opportunities like comparison and evaluation comes with it: As we have already discussed that BoQ tells us about the detail of all the items of work, which helps us a lot in the evaluation. And through this, we can compare offers offered by different contractors for each item. This helps us in getting the best out of every detail.
  • It helps us in defecting problems before we start working: Full detailed work of the project is contained in this, which can be used in a proactive manner to defect problems. After we find problems, we can find suitable solutions.
  • Better project planning: Planning is the most important part of the project and the Bill of Quantity plays an important role in the planning. In the BoQ item’s work, its cost and its quantity are presented, so half of the work is already done. We only have to manage sources and duration of work completion.
  • We get ample time to find good suppliers: After the completion of planning, we have enough time to look for good suppliers. As we have time, we also have the option of negotiating. The total cost of the project is reduced due to this.
  • No Guesswork: Exact and real information is presented in the Bill of Quantity which leaves no place for guesswork. Guesswork is not a good idea in project work.


A Bill of Quantities (BoQ) is a detailed document used in construction projects that itemizes the quantities and costs of materials, labor, equipment, and other elements required for the completion of a project. It provides a breakdown of the project into specific components, facilitating accurate cost estimation, tendering, and contract administration.

A BoQ is crucial because it helps in accurate cost estimation, aids in tendering and awarding contracts, provides a basis for budgeting and cost control, ensures transparency and fair competition among contractors, and serves as a reference for dispute resolution and project documentation.

A BoQ is typically structured into sections based on the type of work involved, such as civil, architectural, mechanical, and electrical works. Each section is further divided into individual items with descriptions, units of measurement, quantities, and associated costs.

The BoQ is usually prepared by a quantity surveyor or a team of professionals with expertise in construction estimation. They analyze project requirements, specifications, and plans to accurately quantify and cost the various elements of the project.

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